Relaxing whilst doing Competition Law is not an Oxymoron

Archive for March 2017


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A large number of antitrust lawyers are attending side-parties and receiving all sorts of prizes at the ABA Antitrust Spring Meeting this week.

For those of you who have asked, we are not there as were dissapointed to see that the program did not feature the “high” point from last years’s conference… See here  😉



Written by Alfonso Lamadrid

30 March 2017 at 8:01 am

Posted in Uncategorized

Career advice for lawyers (II)

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If you are a lawyer with some 2 to 5 years of experience in the legal profession you might be interested in the advice of Steve Meier featured below in this post.

A year ago he addressed newly qualified lawyers and, despite being a recruiter himself, his main advice was not to use recruiters. We liked that. This time he is targeting more experienced lawyers who may find a (sensible) recruiter helpful in determining your place in the market. As Steve pointed out in his previous post, there are recruiters who will encourage you to move you to another firm (any firm) regardless of whether it may fit your long-term career or personal objectives.  His advice builds on the premise that whilst it is great if you can make a smart move, it is much better to remain where you are for the time being than to make a wrong move. Please feel free to question Steve on the issues he raises or on others by commenting on the post.

And speaking of career advice and smart moves, at my own firm we are growing and have openings, also for experienced lawyers. We are looking for truly outstanding lawyers, regardless of nationality (although excellent English is indispensable and notions of Spanish are helpful). What we offer is plenty of very interesting, varied and boutique-like top-notch work (which explains my scarce substantive contributions here in recent weeks… ) and an unbeatable working environment provided that you can tolerate working with me.  If you enjoy EU Court litigation, complex behavioral competition law, cutting-edge State aid and academic opportunities, then feel free to drop me a line at (and btw, for my own ideas on what makes a great lawyer, see here).


It has been a bit more than a year since my last blog post discussing some recruitment issues facing lawyers from newly qualified (“NQ”) to about two years of post-qualification experience (“2PQE”) This time around I should like to discuss some careeradvancement issues facing lawyers who fall roughly between 2PQE and 5PQE.

NB: Let me first observe that the focus on PQE level is becoming somewhat less important as firms increasingly move away from hard-and-fast rules of seniority. Individual performance, rather than the number of years of experience, is increasingly the metric by which a lawyer’s long-term career development is measured. Thus, for example, it is entirely conceivable within a given firm that an exceptional 2PQE can have more responsibility, faster advancement, better prospects – and higher compensation! – than, say, an “average” 3PQE. Nonetheless, it is useful to keep notions of PQE in mind, inter alia, to benchmark yourself against your contemporaries. Each law firm is different, and a 3PQE lawyer who has spent his or her career at Smith & Jones may have a very different – not necessarily better or worse, just different – set of skills and experience than a 3PQE lawyer at Jones & Smith. That being so, ideas of PQE, while less and less relevant internally, are helpful for both you and potential employers in measuring your capabilities and potential.

While law school taught you about thinking like a lawyer, you have spent the past couple of years actually becoming a lawyer. By the time you are 2PQE you should have developed a solid track record of substantive and meaningful experience and at least the beginnings of a solid technical expertise. You have probably worked in a variety of matters, but have perhaps begun to focus on one or two fields that are of specific interest to you. The next few years, those between 2PQE and 5PQE, are typically when you can really hone your legal skills, home in
on what you especially enjoy doing and, indeed, determine next steps in your professional career and personal life.

As regards competition lawyers, for example, some may have a taste for merger work, while others may prefer behavioral matters, and still others may find a blended competition/regulatory practice more to their liking; some lawyers may yearn for an in-house role where they can be closer to business, while still others will ultimately determine that a career in the law is really not for them at all. However, because you have been working hard to become a lawyer, the chances are good that you have had little time to reflect on your career  rajectory, to understand the market or to determine your place in it. Now may be time to take stock of your career and where it is headed.

Whatever you may ultimately decide as your next career step, a reputable recruiter can serve as a sounding board, discussing with you your experience, how it measures up to your contemporaries, and how you can get from where you are to where you want to go. Some less reputable recruiters will be interested only in encouraging you to move so as to generate fees for themselves (see “Introducing . . . “Shotgun Sam”). However, a move may not necessarily make the most sense for you and your situation. Generally speaking, moving simply for the sake of moving is almost never a wise career move and, should you end up in the wrong place, it can do irreparable damage to your longer-term prospects.

You should have some notions about where you want your career to be in a few years, but you should avoid mapping out every step of your career for the next five years. If you stick to an fixed and immutable career plan, you may find yourself having missed some great opportunities.

As noted above, the first couple of years are spent obtaining a fair degree of technical excellence. But as important as being the most technically proficient lawyer possible, that is just the beginning. To the extent that you have not already figured this out for yourself, let me note that being technically excellent will take you only so far in your legal career; there are a number of other facets to the ever-changing practice of law that many young lawyers do
ot discover until it is too late. In addition to intelligence and legal skills, employers will be looking at you for a demonstrable work ethic and for plain old common sense.

NB: The points that follow apply to lawyers throughout their careers; nonetheless, they seem to me particularly important during the early stages of your career, when more senior lawyers are making daily determinations about your suitability for advancement.

Work Ethics

  • Doing more than the bare minimum. Employers always look for a willingness to do more than just the bare minimum to get by. For example, do you actively seek out additional work, or do you sit in your office waiting for someone to give you something to do? Conversely, do you turn down an assignment only to slip out the door at 18.00? Have you written articles or offered to help more senior colleagues do so? Have you undertaken research and preparation for business-development activities? These are but a few examples of what you might consider doing to demonstrate that you are prepared to “go the extra mile”
  • Owning up to mistakes. You will make mistakes. Everyone does. What is important is the manner in which you handle your mistakes. Do not beat yourself up about them, but never try to hide them. Face up to them and tell someone immediately. Generally speaking, it is okay to make a mistake, but an employer will not keep you if it cannot trust you to admit your mistakes. Clients usually forgive mistakes, but you could ruin an entire attorney-client relationship if you try to hide something from them. If you get into trouble, immediately tell someone more senior. Given that everyone has made mistakes, your mistake may not be as serious as you think. If you sense that you are heading into trouble, say something before you get there. Coming clean about your mistake will demonstrate your maturity and trustworthiness. Good lawyers are not good because they never make mistakes, they are good because they do not make the same mistake twice
  • Meeting deadlines. If you see a deadline approaching, do you keep quiet and hope for the best, or do you keep people informed? If you think it likely that you will miss a deadline for a task already given to you, immediately tell someone in charge and explain why. If you cannot meet a deadline on a new task, explain why and offer to speak with other people about shifting priorities.
  • Showing enthusiasm. There will be times when you will be bored to utter distraction. Even so, never show boredom. Try to remain enthusiastic, even if the task is less interesting than watching paint dry.

Common Sense

  • Understanding and remembering instructions. When you get an assignment, do you write down all instructions, or do you rely on your memory? You should get into the habit of writing down instructions as and when you are given them. Once you have done that, ensure that you understand the instructions by repeating them back to the person giving you the instructions. Do not be afraid to ask questions if you are unsure. There is no stupid question, except for one that you repeatedly ask.
  • Being a “team player”. Most employers specifically look for someone who is a “team player” to join them, but what does that mean? In general, it means helping out wherever and whenever needed and pulling your own weight. But it also contains a personal component. Do you actively engage with your colleagues throughout the day, or do you head straight to your office in the morning, close your door and work with as little interaction as possible? Do you get together with colleagues for lunch or after-hours events, or do you isolate yourself from them. Nothing says that you must spend every waking hour with your colleagues, but do make an effort to be an active and enthusiastic member of the group.
  • Office relationships and professional behavior. Even as an active and enthusiastic group member, there are certain limits. For example, you should be social and speak with your colleagues, but do not share every intimate detail of your life. Do not get so drunk at office events that you make a fool of yourself. Office relationships, while convenient because of proximity, are rarely a good idea and should be avoided.
  • Respect your colleagues. Avoid being competitive with your colleagues (e.g., boasting about how well you are doing and about the incredible feedback you are getting). They may be your rivals in some sense, but they deserve your respect. If you fail this, you will disliked, find yourself missing invitations to social events, and lose a potentially valuable support network.
  • Respect the staff. Just because you are a lawyer does not mean that you are superior to the staff. Be nice and polite to everyone, and they will be much more likely to help you when you have a crisis or when you have a stupid question about policies and procedures; if you are an ass to them, you may find that your life can be very difficult. Befriending and respecting staff is an easy and important sign of your own maturity and selfconfidence. Bring the staff the occasional flowers or treats – they will like and respect you for it.
  • Dress the part. Dress appropriately. Invest some of your salary in decent clothes. The legal profession is generally conservative and your clothes should reflect that. Do not be a peacock.

And for heaven’s sake, polish your shoes!

Written by Alfonso Lamadrid

28 March 2017 at 3:26 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Counterfactual analysis and restrictions by object: myths and misconceptions

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Cart before horse

Alfonso’s post on the counterfactual (the best we have published so far this year) made me think of a crucial question that, I believe, it is still very much misunderstood. Often, I hear people say that the counterfactual analysis ‘does not apply’ to restrictions by object, or that it is not relevant in that context. The question is important, as it is crucial to make sense of some major pending issues. I am in fact looking forward to presenting a paper on the counterfactual at the Oxford Antitrust Symposium later this year.

This (relatively widespread) view is, I believe, based on a fundamental misunderstanding about the notion of restriction by object, and about how to go about it in practice. Those who support this view seem to argue, in essence, that the conclusion of the analysis (ie the legal qualification of the agreement under Article 101(1) TFEU) comes before the analysis  itself, and not vice versa. To put it graphically (and this is what explains the picture you see above), it is a bit like putting the cart before the horse.

More importantly, this view is contradicted by the case law of the Court of Justice, which makes it abundantly clear that the counterfactual should be considered irrespective of whether the analysis would lead to the conclusion that the agreement is restrictive by object or effect. In other words, what leads to the conclusion that the agreement is restrictive of competition is the evaluation of the counterfactual, and not the other way around.

Some examples

It makes sense to illustrate the idea by reference to some concrete examples that show that the counterfactual analysis is a step that comes before the legal qualification of the agreement as restrictive by object or effect. Here they are:

  • Export prohibitions and Erauw-Jacquery: Typically, an agreement that provides for an export prohibition is restrictive by object. This is not always the case, however. Where the analysis of the counterfactual suggests that the agreement would not have been concluded in the absence of the export prohibition, it is not restrictive of competition, let alone by object. Erauw-Jacquery, which builds on Nungesser, is crystal clear in this regard.
  • Joint tendering and objective necessity: Cyril Ritter, an academically-minded Commission official, has recently uploaded a very interesting paper on joint tendering (which he – rightly in my view – sees as a form of joint selling). It is wholly uncontroversial to say that joint tendering can in certain circumstances be restrictive by object (more debatable is whether such agreements are typically by object infringements).
    What matters for the purposes of this post, in any event, is an important point that Cyril makes in the paper. Where the agreement is objectively necessary for the parties to take part in the tender, it does not restrict competition, whether by object or effect. As he puts it, ‘there is no competition to restrict’ in the first place, as the parties would not have taken part in the tender absent co-operation between them.
  • Price-fixing and collecting societies: The activities of collecting societies provide a wonderful example – if often forgotten – that a horizontal price-fixing agreement is not necessarily restrictive by object. Think about it: we are talking about an agreement whereby all the authors license their works jointly through a common platform. Is it a cartel? Certainly not. Price-fixing and all, this agreement falls outside the scope of Article 101(1) TFEU – and is thus not restrictive by object – where it is necessary for the collecting society to perform its function.

Competition under Article 101(1) TFEU means ‘competition that would otherwise have existed’

The Court clarified in Societe Technique Miniere that the word ‘competition’ in the context of Article 101(1) TFEU ‘must be understood within the actual context in which it would occur in the absence of the agreement in dispute’. In other words, ‘restriction of competition’ under Article 101(1) TFEU means ‘restriction of competition that would have existed in the absence of the agreement’ – as opposed to ‘restriction of competition that could exist in the abstract’.

There is nothing in Societe Technique Miniere, or in subsequent case law, that suggests that a difference must be made in this sense between restrictions by object and by effect. Such a distinction would in any event be artificial. The letter of the Treaty makes it clear that the notion of restriction of competition is a single one. And the Court has repeatedly held (AC Treuhand being a very good recent example) that no differences should be made where the Treaty itself makes no difference.

The object of an agreement cannot be understood without the counterfactual

If the analysis of the economic and legal context suggests that the agreement does not restrict competition that would have existed in its absence, it is very likely that its object is not anticompetitive. The rationale for the agreement (which is after all what the notion of ‘object’ is all about) is most probably a different one.

Allow me to come back to Cyril’s example: if the analysis of the counterfactual reveals that the parties would not have been able to submit tenders individually, the aim of the joint tender cannot be the restriction of competition. Most probably, such an agreement has a pro-competitive purpose, and it is certainly capable of making way for more effective competition (to come back to the expression used by the Court in Gottrup-Klim).

What explains the perpetuation of some myths and misconceptions?

Even though the case law is clear, the view that the analysis of the counterfactual does not apply to restrictions by object is still popular. Why? Because, I think, many people believe that the notion of restriction by object is something that it is not.

For many people, a restriction by object can be established in the abstract, that is, without examining the objective purpose behind the agreement and without considering the economic and legal context. According to this perspective, a price-fixing or market sharing agreement would always be by object infringements. This view is also misguided, and this is something that the Court has repeatedly held. It is true that, as pointed out in Toshiba, the analysis of the abovementioned factors may not be equally detailed in all cases, but this does not mean that the analysis can ever be established in the abstract.

Written by Pablo Ibanez Colomo

17 March 2017 at 6:57 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

Merger control and innovation: are emerging concerns justified?

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Merger control is making the headlines like it’s 2002. Yesterday, the General Court annulled the Commission decision in UPS/TNT Express. If you have not seen it yet, the reason behind the annulment is interesting: in essence, the GC held that the rights of defence of the merging parties had been breached insofar as the Commission failed to communicate the final version of the econometric model on which its conclusions were based.

The role of economics as a tool to define the boundaries of administrative action (and thus to meaningfully constrain the discretion of the authority) is a topic that keeps me busy, and the judgment gave me good ideas and confirmed some intuitions.

This said, yesterday’s news is not the only big ongoing issue in merger control. On the substantive side, there has been quite a lot of writing lately about the role of innovation in the field (see here from Gavin Bushell, whose name you will find reading yesterday’s judgment; and, from our co-blogger emeritus, here). These writings seem to reflect a concern about what they perceive to be an emerging trend in the administrative practice of the Commission.

As I understand Gavin’s and Nico’s pieces, they – together with a few others – appear to express misgivings about the fact that the analysis of innovation effects does not (or not any more) necessarily relate to a particular product market but to research and development activities and/or capabilities as such.

I have the advantage and the disadvantage that I myself wrote a paper on the topic already some time ago. This means that I have thought about it for a while and have pretty clear views. To a significant extent, I fail to see anything exceptional, novel or parameter-specific in the analysis of a transactions on firms’ ability and incentive to engage in research and development activities. By and large, there is nothing really new under the sun. It is true that I have some concerns, but these are narrower and more modest than those than those voiced by most commentators.

Does it make sense to assess the impact of a transaction on firms’ ability and incentive to engage in research and development activities?

Firms compete with each other – and thus constrain their behaviour – in a variety of ways. For instance, the two only competitors on a particular product market may constrain each other by bringing their costs and prices down. But they may also do so by working on the development of new products and the improvement of existing ones. Depending on the nature of the industry, one manifestation of competition will weigh more than the other.

In either case, a merger between the two only major industry players would have the effect of eliminating a significant competitive constraint. If that is the case, I struggle to see why one of the two manifestations of competition – price-based rivalry – should fall within the scope of the EU Merger Regulation and the other – innovation-based – outside of it. It comes across as somewhat inconsistent to scrutinise some manifestations of competition but not others.

It is true that, in one case, it may not be possible to identify a precise product market. I do not believe it is a decisive factor, in particular because the substantive test in merger control does not refer to a particular manifestation of competition and because the definition of the relevant product market has never been an end in itself, but rather an instrument to identify competition concerns (as well as an occasional trigger of involuntary humour, as Alfonso’s post below shows).

Is the trend towards the analysis of innovation markets a new one?

A second important question is whether this analysis of innovation markets is new. As I understand ongoing discussions, I do not believe it is. In EU competition law, some of the ideas that are being currently explored have been around at least since the adoption of the first version of the Guidelines on horizontal co-operation agreements back in 2000. In that instrument, the Commission toyed with the idea of innovation markets and expressed its concerns with agreements bringing together some of the main drivers of research and development activities in a given industry.

More importantly, the Commission acknowledged at the time the limits of its framework. In particular, it conceded that this analysis can only be properly conducted in industries where the different ‘poles’ of research and development are well structured and can be readily identified. This is the case, for instance, of the pharmaceutical industry. My understanding of ongoing cases is that they follow a similar approach.

Is there something special about innovation?

One could argue that there is something special about merger analysis where innovation is what drives rivalry between firms. After all, the argument goes, there are many things we ignore about innovation. According to an oft-repeated mantra, there is no clear link between market structures and innovation.

While I agree about the extent of our ignorance on these matters, my impression is that this is not a decisive issue. In fact, it would not even matter that there is no clear link between market structures and innovation.

Why not? First, because I do not believe the case law supports the idea that intervention in EU merger control requires direct evidence that a parameter of competition will be harmed. This is true not only of innovation, but also of prices or quality.

Leading judgments like Ryanair/Aer Lingus and Deutsche Borse suggest that a significant impediment to effective competition can be established by proxy. Thus, indirect or qualitative factors, such as those resulting from an analysis of the features of the relevant market, are sufficient to take action.

I do not think yesterday’s judgment changes anything in this regard. The GC did not seem to disagree with the idea that qualitative evidence, alone, is sufficient to establish a significant impediment to effective competition – which is what the Commission, rightly in my view, argued. What the GC held instead is that this fact cannot justify a breach of a firm’s rights of defence, and that the Commission must accept the consequences of relying upon econometric evidence (it is hard to see how the Commission can avoid relying upon such evidence in practice, as it will be put forward by the parties anyway).

There is a second reason why I believe that our ignorance on innovation matters is not decisive. The whole point of EU merger control is to preserve the competitive constraints that firms place on each other at any given point in time (that is, from a static perspective).

Those who claim that there is something different about innovation, appear to claim that such static constraints should not be protected when innovation is at stake. In this sense, they appear to argue that the usual logic of EU merger control should not be followed.

It seems to me that those who claim in a given case that dynamic considerations should take precedence over the static nature of EU merger control bear the burden of proving that the elimination of a competitive constraint would be outweighed by an increase in innovation – good luck with that, by the way, even if it is formally possible to make the argument.

Some concerns are justified: they relate to non-horizontal mergers (and leveraging in general)

In spite of the above, I believe some concerns in relation to the introduction of innovation considerations in EU competition law are justified. These relate to the assessment of the effects of non-horizontal mergers and, more generally, to the assessment of leveraging issues (which can also be observed, in particular, in the context of Article 102 TFEU).

Unlike horizontal mergers, vertical and conglomerate transactions do not in themselves result in the elimination of a competitive constraint. It is therefore necessary to establish, on a case-by-case basis, that the concentration will lead to anticompetitive foreclosure. And it may well be the case that anticompetitive foreclosure is an unlikely outcome in a given market.

Suppose that the available evidence suggests that anticompetitive foreclosure is indeed improbable. In such circumstances, a competition authority may seek to argue that innovation would be harmed even in the absence of foreclosure. In other words, instead of inferring harm to innovation from the elimination of a competitive constraint, the authority would infer the elimination of a competitive constraint from the alleged harm to innovation.

This reversal is what I call in my paper ‘innovation considerations in lieu of foreclosure analysis’. My impression is that it is a trend that can be traced in the practice of the Commission but that has not been scrutinised as much as it should, even though it clearly entails a departure from traditional competition law analysis.

An example of ‘innovation in lieu of foreclosure’? Think of the scraping aspect of the Google saga, which I used in my paper (and about which Alfonso wrote four years ago – time flies). As far as I can tell, it has never been argued that the alleged scraping would drive successful firms like Yelp or Tripadvisor out of the market. The claim, instead, is that the practice in question would reduce these players’ incentives to compete, even if they continue to place a constraint on Google. As I explain elsewhere, this claim is not only at odds with traditional competition law, but problematic for substantive and due process reasons.

Written by Pablo Ibanez Colomo

8 March 2017 at 8:43 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

The “Interesting” Market Definition Awards

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Some of our most successful recent posts have had to do with competition competitions and legal awards. Given that it’s particularly busy and we don’t have time to write something more substantive this interest, we have decided to give awards to the smallest, most absurd or for-whatever-reason funny market definitions used or attempted in competition cases (all jurisdictions count).


In order to get the ball rolling, here are my examples:

The relevant market for “Bar Mitzvah tours of Israel” discussed in this 1995 7th Circuit Opinion that starts this way: Bar mitzvah tours of Israel. That is the market defined for the antitrust claim in this case. It is an absurd market definition”.

-The relevant market of “Asterix at the Olympic Games” upheld by Austria’s Supreme Court, which noted that any film could constitute a market of its own (see here)

-The one that we discussed in the post “We owe you an apology” (adult-content warning)  (the bold is to make sure you don’t click)

Licenseable ope…sorry, no ongoing cases.

-In this case the funny thing is not so much the market but the alleged dominant entity: the Cistersian congregation of the Immaculate Conception was found to be dominant in the maritime route linking the continent and the isle of Saint Honorat.  The congregation had apparently refused to authorize third parties to provide additional transport services. The French competition authority dismissed allegations of unlawful abuse. It found that the limitation of tourists was objectively justified by the necessity to preserve the quietness of the monks. No kidding. See here.



Your contributions will be much appreciated!

P.S. The Bed of Procrustes (tailored to fit its occupant) is pictured above


Written by Alfonso Lamadrid

3 March 2017 at 1:44 pm

Posted in Uncategorized

EU Regulation and Competition Law in the Transport Sector

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Last week Oxford University Press released the book EU Regulation and Competition Law in the Transport Sector edited by our friend/colleague/many other things Luis Ortiz Blanco and by Ben van Houtte.

The book is a certainly a must for anyone interested in the transport sector and is the most-comprehensive work to date on this subject. The book covers both the regulatory and the competition (antitrust, merger and State aid) aspects of public intervention in inland, maritime and air transport as well as everything related to transport infrastructures.

The book has been written by a number of experts in the field currently working either for the European Commission (including DG Comp, DG Move and the Legal Service) and in private practice (among them, the book features key contributions from our very good friends Elvira Aliende and Mark English, pictured below with Luis, smiling very naturally at my phone’s camera at a seminar last week ). The full list of authors is available here.


P.S. I was trying to think of some sort of transport-related joke to accompany the post, but I guess I hit a roadblock….



Written by Alfonso Lamadrid

1 March 2017 at 6:00 pm

Posted in Uncategorized