On bus lanes and State resources: AG Wahl in Eventech
The best way to start the first post I write after my ‘formal’ induction into the blog is, I tell myself, by referring to one I wrote back in July, and which concerned the preliminary references in Eventech and Kunsten Informatie and Media. The two AG opinions came out during the Court’s hyperproductive month of September. While I still think the two cases are relatively straightforward in terms of substance, it makes sense to write a couple of notes on Eventech (in the form of two separate posts).
You may remember that the key question in that case was whether regulation allowing black cabs (the iconic London taxis) to use bus lanes and excluding the so-called minicabs (private hire vehicles) entails the use of State resources. The answer, in my view, is an obvious no. It is in fact a good textbook example showing that advantages within the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU are not always granted through the use of State resources. The position taken by AG Wahl therefore comes as no surprise to me. It is rather the orderly analysis of the question that inspired me to write this post.
When going through it, I thought, first, of AG Jacobs’ classic opinion in PreussenElektra. It seems difficult to believe, but many of the issues that now seem straightforward were far from established when that opinion was written back in year 2000 (which, or so I like to think, is not such a long time ago). If a masterful analysis was necessary to put some order into a set of scattered and seemingly contradictory precedents, this must mean that State aid has come of age only relatively recently.
Second, I thought that I had never seen such a careful dissection of the different ways in which State resources may be involved in a case. Eventech had raised several arguments trying to link the regulatory advantage to the use of resources by the State. For instance, the firm argued that black cabs can be said to be exempted from fines for using the bus lanes, which, in turn, leads to a loss of revenue for the State. The opinion is valuable not because this argument, or similar ones, were particularly powerful or persuasive, but due to the way in which they are examined by AG Wahl. To this day, I still have misgivings about the treatment of some issues in landmark cases like Sloman Neptun. From this perspective, the opinion sets a model for the future, in particular to the extent that the Court had seemingly never been confronted with some factual scenarios that were relevant in this case.
I will write something in the coming days about the advantage aspect of Eventech. Before that, I will end on a personal note. I took an Uber cab this summer for a fairly long ride and one of the many questions with which I pestered the driver had to do with this case. Interestingly, he was of the opinion that the regulatory regime in place makes sense. He said that traffic would be unmanageable in London if minicabs were allowed to use bus lanes. And he thought he would rather be subject to lighter regulatory obligations, even if it means giving up some privileges. Thoughtful and sensible, I would say.